Boland, R. J. Tenkasi, R. V. Te'eni, D. (1994) Designing Information Technology to Support Distributed Cognition. Organization Science, 5 (3): 456-475
Abstract: Cognition in organizations is a distributed phenomenon, in which individual members of an organization reflect upon their experience, make plans, or take action. Organizational learning or organizational cognition are familiar terms, but it is only the individual persons in an organization who create interpretations and test understandings, as they think and learn in their organizational setting. Coordinated outcomes emerge in organizations when individuals think and act in ways that take others in the organization and their interdependencies into account. We argue that much of the effort to design information technology to support cognition in organizations has not addressed its distributed quality. Such systems have tended to focus either on the individual as an isolated decision maker, or on the group as a producer of a decision or policy statement in common. In distributed cognition, by contrast, the group is a set of autonomous agents who act independently yet recognize that they have interdependencies. To guide the design of information technology, we propose that distributed cognition be viewed as a hermeneutic process of inquiry, emphasizing the importance of individual interpretation and group dialogue. Hermeneutics provides a theory of the interpretive process through which an individual gives meaning to organizational experience. Inquiry systems provide a theory of how a community of inquirers build and test knowledge representations through dialogue. Together, hermeneutics and inquiry systems are used to propose a set of design principles to guide the development of information technology that supports distributed cognition. The design principles we describe in the paper are ownership, easy travel, multiplicity, indeterminacy, emergence and mixed forms. Applications of information technology which embody these design principles would support distributed cognition by assisting individuals in making interpretations of their situation, reflecting on them, and engaging in dialogue about them with others. The objective is to refine their own understanding of the situation and better appreciate the understandings of others, enabling them to better take their inter-dependencies into account in their individual actions. A project to develop such a system is discussed, along with some implications for research.
Horning, K.-H., Ahrens, D. and Gerhard, A. (1999). Do technologies have time?: New practices of time and the transformation of communication technologies. Time & Society, 8(2): 2-3, 293-308.
Abstract: This article explores the idea that certain temporalities of technology relate to temporalities embodied in different social practices. Our interest focuses on practices that do not seek a priori to domesticate time but rather seek to come to terms with it. Sociological analysis can no longer assume that technological artifacts incorporate functional time demands that determine unequivocally the uses of time. Instead it is concrete practices that generate those qualities of technology that we usually tend to grasp as `permanent' and `pregiven'. To what extent the complex inter-relationship of technology and time is revealed will be illustrated by three different types - the `surfer', the `sceptic' and the `gambler'. These figures show the complicated and multidimensional ways in which technology plays a part in the constitution of reality and assumes differing shapes in everyday life.
Kenyon, Susan (2008/Sep). Internet Use and Time Use: The importance of multitasking, Time & Society, 17: 283-318.
Abstract: Scholars are beginning to question the impacts of the Internet for the conceptualization of time and time use. However, discussion in terms of the impacts of the Internet for multitasking has been absent from this debate. Multitasking has, until recently, been a forgotten dimension of time-use research. The phenomenon has long been recognized as important, yet it is only in the past decade that time-use researchers have begun seriously both to record and analyse related data. Such studies have shown that a more fully informed understanding of the true extent of time use and activity participation can emerge through the consideration of multitasking. This, in turn, can present a more accurate picture upon which measures of change in time use can be assessed. This article is concerned with an exploratory discussion of the impact of the inclusion of multitasking data upon perception of change in time use as a result of Internet use. Following theoretical discussion, the article presents evidence from a longitudinal, diary-based panel study with around 100 participants and a questionnaire survey with 1000 participants. The article explores the prevalence of multitasking and reveals clear implications of Internet use for the same. In conclusion, those seeking to understand the influence of Internet use upon time use must include multitasking in their analysis if they are to avoid an incomplete and potentially misleading account of time use (and change therein) in the information age.
O'Carroll, Aileen (2008/Sep). Fuzzy Holes and Intangible Time: Time in a knowledge industry, Time & Society, 17: 179-193.
Abstract: The knowledge economy is characterized by highly skilled, highly educated employees whose work is centred on the manipulation of information. This article looks at the work process of workers in the software sector, as their work is both central to the knowledge economy and shares many of the characteristics of other knowledge workers. It describes the temporal frameworks found, grounding them in the work process. It documents specific characteristics of work and work organization that give rise to a time experienced as both intangible and fuzzy. It argues that there is a deep irony at the centre of the knowledge economy. On one hand, speed is the key metaphor of the knowledge economy. Yet the use of metaphors of speed and efficiency bypass any appreciation of the qualitative nature of time found within these work processes. Knowledge production is based on creativity, communication and knowledge development, processes that move at their own pace. These processes sit uncomfortably within temporal frameworks, which are based on a predictable and quantifiable time.
Schokkenbroek, Christina (1999). News Stories: Structure, Time and Evaluation, Time & Society, 8: 59-98.
Abstract: In his article `News Time', published in Time & Society in 1995, Allan Bell claims that the narrative structure of news stories deviates considerably from other narrative genres. This paper questions the claim that news stories have a non-chronological time structure, as it raises fundamental questions with respect to comprehension. In doing so, the time and narrative structure of news stories are reanalysed with the aim of relating the overall structure to the function of news stories in their recapitulation of reportable news events. The reanalysis also considers the evaluative aspect of stories, as evaluation appears to affect the temporal organization of the events in narrative. Seers, A. and
Wilson, Margaret (2004). Six Views of Embodied Cognition, Psychonomic Bulletin Revew,
Abstract: The emerging viewpoint of embodied cognition holds that cognitive processes are deeply rooted in thebody’s interactions with the world. This position actually houses a number of distinct claims, some ofwhich are more controversial than others. This paper distinguishes and evaluates the following six claims:1) cognition is situated; 2) cognition is time-pressured; 3) we off-load cognitive work onto theenvironment; 4) the environment is part of the cognitive system; 5) cognition is for action; 6) off-linecognition is body-based. Of these, the first three and the fifth appear to be at least partially true, and theirusefulness is best evaluated in terms of the range of their applicability. The fourth claim, I argue, is deeply problematic. The sixth claim has received the least attention in the literature on embodiedcognition, but it may in fact be the best documented and most powerful of the six claims.
Woodruff, S. (1997). Temporal pacing in task forces: Group development or deadline pressure? Journal of Management, 23(2), 169-187.
Abstract: Research on the punctuated equilibrium model of group development confounded group life span with member tusk completion. We report two studies that separate task pacing, from life span development. In one, 50 students simultaneously performed group and individual projects. In the second, student groups worked on two tasks sequentially. Results indicate that the temporal pattern postulated in the punctuated equilibrium model reflects task pacing under u deadline, rather than the process of group development.
Segre, Sandro (2000/Jun). A Weberian Theory of Time, Time & Society, 9: 147-170.
Abstract: This article formulates a Weberian general theory of time. The theory is Weberian, in the sense that it is drawn from Weber's epistemological and sociological work. After a short presentation of Weber's epistemological writings, concerning how social scientists may investigate present and past events, and a brief digression on Husserl's possible influence on Weber, it focuses on Weber's sociological analysis of time in interactional and social contexts, and especially - on the interactions between formal and informal contexts. A unitary theoretical framework is then developed and analyzed in the light of classical and contemporary sociological work, concerning time as a social construction and a social constraint.
Yli-Kauhaluoma, Sari (2009 ). Time at R&D Work: Types and strategies of time in the collaborative development of a chemical technology, Time & Society, 18: 106-129.
Abstract: This article seeks to increase understanding of the temporal aspects in technological innovation processes. Based on an empirical case, the aim is first to identify various types of time and then to study how R&D professionals in chemistry interact with time as they collaborate in developing and applying technological inventions. The article suggests that the distribution of work to collaborators can be seen as an attempt to extend the time resources in a project. Furthermore, participation of R&D professionals in short-term projects can be seen as an attempt to build long-term collaborative relationships. The study participates in a debate on how people in an R&D context approach collaboration from the time perspective.
Ylijoki,Oili-Helena & Hans Mäntylä (2003/Mar). Conflicting Time Perspectives in Academic Work, Time & Society, 12: 55-78.
Abstract: This article explores the diversity of time perspectives in academic work. The background of the study stems from recent changes in university management and funding, which imposenew demands for academic work, including its temporal order. Drawing on focused interviews with 52 academics, we discern four core time perspectives according to which academics experience their work: scheduled time, timeless time, contracted time and personal time. Scheduled time refers to the accelerating pace of work, timeless time to transcending time through immersion in work, contracted time to short-term employment with limited future prospects and finally, personal time to one's temporality and the role of work in it. In addition, we discuss the relationships between the different time perspectives, focusing on dilemmas and tensions between them.
Zerubavel, Eviatar (1979/Sep). Private Time and Public Time: The Temporal Structure of Social Accessibility and Professional, Social Forces, 58, 1,38-58.
Zucchermaglio,Cristina & Alessandra Talamo (2000). The Social Construction of Work Times: Negotiated Time and Expected Time, Time & Society, 9: 205-222.
Abstract: This article deals with the negotiation of time boundaries in a project group. The study grew up from a theoretical approach grounded in cultural psychology, where time is considered as a cultural artifact and as a dimension of the interactive environment that could be co-constructed by all participants through discourse. The relevance of the negotiation of the temporal dimension in work settings is still unexplored. Both qualitative and quantitative data of the first meeting of a project group of an Italian national bank working on the reorganization of front-office services show how the negotiation of temporal aspects is a core topic from the very beginning of the work. This study shows that when a project starts, all participants spend a lot of effort in defining different kinds of temporal boundaries as these represent very important dimensions of work planning; time is not treated as a single topic but participants differentiate organizational time, project time, meetings time and actual meeting time. Results strengthen the hypothesis of the interactional nature of time in work settings and show specific relationships with the contents of participants' discourses.